The Lake Erie French Lac ri is the southernmost and fourth largest of the five Great Lakes of North America. Through him runs the United States border with Canada. The inflow forms the Detroit River. About the 56 km long Niagara River he drains into Lake Ontario. The Erie Canal connects the lake with the 580 kilometers east Hudson River. The name derives from the Erie Indians.
The lake is at an average altitude of 174 m and covers an area of 8203 8203 25,667 square kilometers. It is 388 km long and up to 92 km wide, the coastline is 1369 km. Lake Erie is the shallowest of the Great Lakes with an average depth of 19 meters and a maximum depth of 64 meters. Due to its shallow depth, it also has the highest water temperature. The catchment area covers an area of 8203 8203 approximately 58,790 qkm. The Canadian seaport is 12,722 qkm and the US seaport is 12,945 qkm.
The main tributary of Lake Erie is the Detroit River from Lake Huron and Lake St. Clair. Other major tributaries include Grand River Lake Erie, Ohio , Grand River Lake Erie, Ontario , Huron River Lake Erie, Michigan , Huron River Ohio , Maumee River, Sandusky River and Cuyahoga River. He is connected to Lake Ontario via the Niagara River with the Niagara Falls. A shipping connection is via the Welland Canal, which is part of the St. Lawrence Seaway. The Erie Canal was a historic shipping connection to the Hudson River, which was initially of great economic importance in the 19th century and whose commercial use was abandoned in the second half of the 20th century.
Lake Erie forms part of the border between Canada and the United States. In the north lies the Canadian province of Ontario, in the south the US states Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York. On the lakeside are the cities of Buffalo, Erie, Toledo and Cleveland. The lake has a total of 27 islands, nine of which belong to Ontario and the rest to Ohio. Middle Island is the southernmost point of Canada, while the peninsula Point Pelee National Park is the southernmost point of the Canadian mainland. With its 42 km area, Pelee Island, on the Canadian side, is the largest island in Lake Erie.
Since the 19th century winegrowing is practiced on Lake Erie. The Canadian growing areas extend on the north shore and on Pelee Iceland. The vineyard Lake Erie AVA is located in the American state of New York.
Lake Erie is the one of the Great Lakes that suffers the most from pollution and environmental problems. His condition was particularly bad in the 1950s and 1960s, when industrial and household wastewater was largely unexplained him or his inflows were initiated. Among other things, the lake was heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs and mercury. The widespread use of phosphate-containing detergents at this time led to severe eutrophication of the lake, resulting in regular algal blooms. The overall condition of the Lake Erie was so bad that by the late 1960s many of its animal populations were close to total collapse and eventually earned the media nickname North America s Dead Sea Dead Sea of 8203 8203 North America . The situation of the Eriesse and its tributaries, such as the Cuyahoga River, became a catalyst for the environmental movement in the US, and in the 1970s a series of measures were taken to redevelop the lake. Thus, in 1972, the Clean Water Act was passed, the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement was closed and the United States Environmental Protection Agency EPA was founded. Sewage treatment plants were built and phosphate as a component of detergents and the use of PCBs were banned. This resulted in a drastic reduction of algal blooms. Animal populations began to recover, and in the 1980s, the condition of the lake had improved significantly. He was again a popular destination for excursion and leisure, especially for anglers and now had the nickname Walleye capital of the world glass perch capital of the world with an estimated population of 40 million glass perch.
In the mid-1990s, the algae bloom returned, this time caused by increased fertilization in the agricultural regions in the catchment area of 8203 8203 the lake. The fertilizer, including phosphate-containing components, is flushed by rain either directly into the lake or into its tributaries. In the 21st century, the flowers of the poisonous Microcystis algae were increasingly larger and thus also led to a threat to the drinking water taken from the lake. 2011 saw the largest algal bloom in the history of the lake she took in a fifth of its surface. In summer 2014, a large Microcystis flower poisoned drinking water in Toledo, causing 400,000 people to stop using tap water for several days.