Caspian Sea

The Caspian Sea is the largest lake in the world. The salt lake lies in West Asia and in the extreme Eastern Europe with no natural connection to the oceans within the large Aralo-Caspian lowlands. In the north, it borders Russia and Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan to the east, Iran to the south and Azerbaijan to the west.

Since the Caspian Sea is not a sea in the legal sense, it is not subject to the 1994 Law of the Sea.

On 12 August 2018, the Heads of State and Government of the riparian states of Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan in Aqtau Kazakhstan agreed in a framework agreement on the use of the Caspian Sea under their own legal status - neither as a sea nor as a sea. 2 The agreement is yet to be ratified by the parliaments. In addition, the division of the seabed must be specified.

Previously, contracts from 1921 and 1940 regulated shipping and fishing only between Iran and the Soviet Union. These defined the Caspian Sea as inland waters with the right of common use. Since then, the states of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, which emerged with the collapse of the Soviet Union, have been disadvantaged. They sought oil and gas extraction rights and the right to lay pipelines for them. Russia was important in the agreement that no third country forces - in particular NATO - have access. Due to US sanctions, Iran was interested in completing the negotiations begun in 1996.

The oldest cultural documents are found on inscriptions of Assyrian pottery and call a Southern Sea . Hekataios of Miletus mentions it in the 6th century BC. As Caspian and Hyrcanian Sea the first denomination refers to the Caspi tribe, who lived on the southwestern shore of the Caspian Caucasus, in present-day Azerbaijan, the second denoting the shore near Hyrkanien, a landscape on today s Iranian and southern Turkmen coast. Other ancient names are the ethnonyms Alban , Joshgun and Hyrcan . The changing colonization history led to numerous other names such. B. the Tatar name Ag Deniz White Sea, see also Chasaric Sea and confusion, eg Blue Sea in old Russian documents with the Aral Sea or Kasar Danizi in the Turkish-speaking Khazars, which settled in the 5th to 10th century northwest. Overall, various peoples have given the lake about 70 different names, including less well-established terms such as Baku Sea in the 14th and 15th centuries after the economic importance of the city of Baku at that time.

The Caspian Sea, located in a sprawling and up to 1,023 m deep natural depression, is located among other things between the dry part of the great Caspian valley in the north, the Kasachensteppe in the northeast, the large lowlands of Turan in the east, the Elburs in the south and the Caucasus in the west. Azerbaijan coastline approx. 800 km , Iran coastline 750 km , Kazakhstan coastline 1894 km , Russia coastline approx. 960 km and Turkmenistan coastline 1768 km border on it.

The Caspian Sea is - depending on the definition - part of the border of Europe and Asia and thus divides Eurasia into two continents. For the course of this border, see below Internal Aurasian border.

The area of 8203 8203 the Caspian Sea is 386,400 qkm, making it the largest land area enclosed by land or its largest lake. The area of 8203 8203 the Caspian Sea corresponds approximately to the area of 8203 8203 Germany and Belgium or the Baltic Sea without the Kattegat. Its north-south extension is 1200 km, its west-east extension covers 435 km average 300 km . While the large northern part is only about 6 m deep on average, its deepest point in the south is 995 m. Because its water surface is 28 m below sea level, this maximum depth is 1023 m below sea level, making it the second deepest natural depression of the earth after Lake Baikal, whose lake bottom is 1182 m below sea level.

The Caspian Sea has no natural connection to the oceans. It is therefore a lake and bears the name sea only because of its size and the salinity of the water. An earlier common name was Kaspisee. However, there is a navigable connection across the Volga, Volga-Don and Don rivers across the Sea of 8203 8203 Azov to the Black Sea, the Volga, the Volga-Baltic Canal, Lake Onega and the Neva to the Baltic Sea and from Lake Onega to the White Sea Baltic Sea Channel to the White Sea.